HUFS OIAM

Research Publications

Empirical STudies

HUFS OIAM does not just facilitate physical mobility and intercultural exchanges for students from all over the world; we also conduct and publish research on the very topic. See below a list of research papers that have been conducted through the Office of International Affairs. We strive to submit our papers to Open Access Journals so that they are freely accessible to anyone and everyone around the world, fostering a global discourse on international higher education.

Towards a model of remote teaching and learning under emergency and sustained crisis conditions: A description of novel distance education contexts and manifestations

Humans have been learning at a distance for millennia. Modern Information and communications technology has enabled formal education to be conducted online, though significant variation exists in purpose, course format, delivery methods, etc. Under duress of COVID-19, educators and students alike have been forced to engage in their courses remotely. These courses, however, are not equivalent to formal distance education and to date have broadly been referred to as Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT). Nevertheless, ERT courses are no longer unexpected and have become plannable; many are being sustained indefinitely since the pandemic has not yet abated. Despite this paradox, emergent ERT literature typically conceptualizes the practice monolithically. This conceptual paper discusses key differences between formal distance education, emergency remote teaching, and sustained remote teaching, and suggests a descriptive contextual model as a starting point as a research analytic and for discussion in the field of distance education.

Reference

Stewart, W. H., & Lowenthal, P. R., & Richter, D. J. (in press). Towards a model of remote teaching and learning under emergency and sustained crisis conditions: A description of novel distance education contexts and manifestations. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education.

PREPRINT_towardsamodel_unblind_manuscript.pdf

COVID-19: A longitudinal perspective on Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT) from the Republic of Korea

In the Republic of Korea, the COVID-19 pandemic coincided with the start of the 2020 academic year and saw Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) emerge as a way of educational continuity for millions of students. While ERT was new and unplanned at the time, the practice became sustained over the semesters that followed, marking a shift from ERT to Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT). Questions remain, however, whether students’ experiences and perceptions with learning remotely would improve as a result of institutional preparedness and faculty experience. Given this, we investigated exchange students’, a unique group of students who are historically interested in having place-based in person learning experiences, experiences and perceptions with SRT while attending college in Korea. We administered a survey to 140 (Spring 2020), 93 (Fall 2020), 141 (Spring 2021), and 143 (Fall 2021) exchange students where they rated their perceptions of Teaching and Learning Processes, Student Support, and Course Structure with their SRT learning experiences. Independent-samples one-way ANOVAs comparing perceptions between Semester 1 and 2, Semester 2 and 3, Semester 3 and 4, and Semester 1 and 4 indicated several statistically significant mean score increases, though the scope and degree of the changes are ultimately minor improvements and interpreted as insignificant. Implications for SRT policy and future research are discussed.

Reference

Stewart, W. H., & Lowenthal, P. R., & Baek, Y. (in press). COVID-19: A longitudinal perspective from the Republic of Korea. Quarterly Review of Distance Education.

PREPRINT_SRTOverTime.pdf

Distance education under duress: A case study of exchange students' experiences with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea

Abstract

COVID-19 caused transitions to remote learning around the world. The way this occurred, though necessary, was a departure from the standards and norms of traditional distance education, as well as a drastic change for the majority of students who had little, if any, previous experience learning at a distance. This case study was conducted in the Republic of Korea with 15 international exchange students who found themselves forced to take distance education courses on an empty campus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Themes of isolation and loneliness, diverse learning experiences, little-to-no social interaction, teaching, cognitive, or social presence emerged from the interviews. In this paper, we discuss our findings and the implications for future research and practice.

Reference

Stewart, W. H., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2021). Distance education under duress: A case study of exchange students' experiences with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. http://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2021.1891996

Distance education under duress a case study of exchange students experience with online learning during the COVID 19 pandemic in the Republic of.pdf

Commitment to academic exchanges in the age of COVID-19: A case study of arrival and quarantine experiences from the Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The suspension of international student mobility programs has been common due to COVID-19. In the Republic of Korea, the successful management of the pandemic allowed borders to remain open and mobility to continue. In Spring 2020, however, the Korean government started requiring quarantine-upon-arrival for all inbound travel; the sudden announcement created confusion. The Fall semester would see students arrive with no knowledge of how quarantines would work or in what ways the isolation period might affect them. Student motivations for exchanges during a global pandemic with increased health risks, mobility obstacles, and stresses were unknown. This case study reports the arrival/quarantine experiences of 10 exchange students in Seoul, Korea. Students’ views and expectations of Korea as a safe study destination were juxtaposed with tumultuous arrival experiences. We discuss these findings in terms of the academic exchange life cycle and the importance of resource/service accessibility amid novel pandemic-based norms.

Reference

Stewart, W. H., & Kim, B. M. (2021). Commitment to academic exchanges in the age of COVID-19: A case study of arrival and quarantine experiences from the Republic of Korea. Journal of International Students, 11(S2). https://www.ojed.org/index.php/jis/article/view/4110

Commitmenttoacademicexchanges.pdf

A global crash-course in teaching and learning online: A thematic review of empirical Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) studies in higher education during Year 1 of COVID-19

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted education in ways that academic institutions, scholars, administrators, educators, and students will strive to fully comprehend for years to come. The global spread of SARS-CoV2 in early 2020 prompted social distancing as the primary countermeasure against contracting and spreading the novel coronavirus, which in turn led academic communities worldwide to suddenly transition to emergency remote teaching (ERT) in order to maintain educational continuity. This review of the literature synthesizes findings from 38 empirical studies set in higher education about emergency remote teaching (ERT) in 2020 from all over the world. A thematic analysis of findings produced four major themes: 1) diverse ERT experiences; 2) digital divide and vast educational/socio economic inequalities; 3) commonly-experienced ERT problems, issues, and challenges; and 4) frequently-made adjustments in response to ERT. Findings are indicative of the immediate aftermath of transitions to ERT, and open areas of research for long-term impacts of ERT are discussed.

Reference

Stewart, W. H. (2021). A global crash-course in teaching and learning online: A thematic review of empirical Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) studies in higher education during Year 1 of COVID-19. Open Praxis, 13(1), 89-102. http://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.13.1.1177

1177-5049-2-PB.pdf

From Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) to Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT): A comparative semester analysis of exchange students’ experiences and perceptions of learning online during COVID-19

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic caused universities worldwide to close campuses, forcing millions of teachers and students to resort to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) and learning. Though necessary, the sudden move to remote delivery marked a significant departure from the standards and norms in distance education. In Korea, the pandemic coincided with the start of the 2020 academic year. Though ERT was new and unplanned during the first semester of the year, it became Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT) into the second. Through the lens of performance improvement theory, we sought to determine if students’ experiences and perceptions with learning remotely via ERT would change over time as a result of institutional preparedness and faculty support/experience. In total, 140 (Spring) and 93 (Fall) exchange students rated their perceptions of Teaching and Learning Processes, Student Support, and Course Structure with their ERT/SRT learning experiences via an electronic survey. An independent-samples one-way ANOVA indicated several statistically significant benchmarks, though results are interpreted as minor real-world improvement. Implications for ERT/SRT policy and future research in the context of specific student groups are discussed.


Reference

Stewart, W. H., Baek, Y., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2022). From Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) to Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT): A comparative semester analysis of exchange students’ experiences and perceptions of learning online during COVID-19. Online Learning Journal, 26(2), 170-193. https://olj.onlinelearningconsortium.org/index.php/olj/article/view/2661

ERT_SRT.pdf

Seoul Destination: A mixed-methods study on the pull factors of inbound exchange students at a Korean university

Abstract

The number of international students studying in the Republic of Korea has increased tremendously over the last 20 years, marking a change in regional student mobility trends. While most international degree students tend to originate in countries in Asia, signifying regionalization versus internationalization, exchange students are diverse by nationality/ region. This concurrent nested mixed-methods study sought to investigate the pull factors of a Korean university among exchange students. 564 students completed an electronic questionnaire and 10 students participated in on campus interviews. Quantitative results suggested that exchange students found characteristics about Korea attractive (e.g., K-pop) as well as wanting international and/or cross-cultural experiences, to be the most appealing. Qualitative findings showed that students became interested in Korea by exposure to popular media, as well as wanting a diverse, international study environment. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of university inbound program promotion/marketing and program design/development for short-term mobility, along with areas for future research.

Reference

Stewart, W. H. (2020). Seoul Destination: A mixed-methods study on the pull factors of inbound exchange students at a Korean university. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 6(3), 58-82. https://doi.org/10.32865/fire202063220

220-Article Text-584-1-10-20201019.pdf

Experiences and perceptions of exchange students learning online during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea: An exploratory descriptive study

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools worldwide to suddenly transition to remote learning. The change forced students, who might not choose to take distance education courses, to adjust to a new way of completing their coursework. Further, this impacted certain student groups like exchange students more adversely since distance courses complicated academic exchanges by rendering shortterm exchange students isolated on an empty campus in a foreign country, all while recently arriving to both. There are many intrinsic hardships to academic exchanges but there is a lack of research on exchange students' experiences learning online when immediately transitioning from face-to-face courses to emergency remote or online courses under such circumstances. This exploratory descriptive study investigated exchange students’ experiences learning online during the COVID19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea. 140 exchange students responded to a survey about their experiences and perceptions of their online courses. The quantitative results in this study show a relatively ambivalent experience in terms of quality Teaching and Learning Processes, Course Structure, and Student Support, although students had both good and bad experiences. Qualitative data provided insight into the desired but missing aspects of exchange students' ERT experiences: communication from faculty, interaction with other students, and feedback on their work.

Reference

Stewart, W. H., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2021). Experiences and perceptions of exchange students learning online during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea: An exploratory descriptive study. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 16(1), 119-140. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4782878

551-Article Text-1485-1-10-20210524.pdf

Destination, experience, social network, and institution: An exploratory correlational analysis of four academic exchange pull factor dimensions at a university in the Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Korean universities have shown a dramatic increase in international student enrollment over the last 20 years. While the increase in enrollment is undeniable, factors related to international students at Korean universities are not well known or poorly understood. Decisions leading to enrollment can be markedly different between short- and long-term international students, or the reasons underlying these decisions may be conflated or overlooked, obfuscating research findings. This quantitative study at a university in the Republic of Korea investigated four pull factor dimensions, Appeal of Korea, Experiential Motivations, Social Network Influences, and Institutional Appeal (based on 30 pull factor items) by gender and study level. Data was collected from 601 short-term exchange students using an electronic questionnaire for students enrolled over a five-semester period. Results showed that Experiential Motivations were the most salient pull factor dimension in general, while 2x3 ANOVA analyses indicated statistically significant differences by gender and study level across all four pull factor dimensions. Female students were more likely to be pulled by Experiential Motivations, in addition to being more likely to be studying at the language institute while graduate students were negatively correlated with Experiential Motivations and Institutional Appeal. Implications of findings suggest a further development of cultural experiences into undergraduate/graduate programs to increase appeal, as well as extra-curricular offerings through both formal university offices and informal student-led organizations.

Reference

Lee, K., & Stewart, W. H. (2022). Destination, experience, social network, and institution: An exploratory correlational analysis of four academic exchange pull factor dimensions at a university in the Republic of Korea. Journal of International Students, 12(2), 877-896. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v12i4.3662

PREPRINT_Destination, experience, social network, and institution_ An exploratory correlational study of four academic exchange pull factor dimensions at university in the Republic of Korea.pdf

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